Interesting

A timeline of events in 1978-1979 - History

A timeline of events in 1978-1979 - History


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

1978 Indira Gandhi Expelled From Parliament- Indira Gandhi was expelled from Parliament after being indicted on a charge of election fraud. She was ordered arrested, but was quickly released. On January 3, the Congress party, of which she had been one of the founders, also expelled her.
1978 Aldo Moro Killed Aldo Moro was found shot. He was the former premier of Italy and had been kidnapped by Red Brigade terrorists. They had demanded the release of other members of the Red Brigade.
1978 Sandinista Guerillas Seize Hostages Sandinista Guerillas captured the National Palace in Managua. They seized 1,500 hostages, including members of the legislature. The hostages were released when the Somoza government agreed to the release of 59 political prisoners.
1978 Smallpox Eradicated The smallpox disease was completely eradicated from the Earth, thanks to a worldwide prevention program, combined with wide distribution of a vaccine.
1978 First Birth Due to Invitro The first birth due to in vitro fertilization occurred in 1978. The process involved the insemination of a woman's eggs outside her body.

1979

1979 SALT II The S.A.L.T. II Accord was reached in June of 1979. The Accord allowed both the US and U.S.S.R. to build up to 2,250 missiles, of which 1,320 could be MIRVD (Multiple Independent Re-entry Vehicles). The MIRVD missiles could carry many warheads. The agreement was received with disdain by critics of the Soviets, who believed that the accord granted the Soviets the advantage. The S.A.L.T. II agreement was never ratified, as the subsequent Soviet invasion of Afghanistan eliminated any support for the treaty. The treaty's terms, however, continued to be observed by both sides.
1979 US and China Establish Full Diplomatic Relations In January 1979, the United States and Communist China established formal diplomatic relations. The US broke diplomatic relations with Taiwan, thereby meeting the Communist Chinese precondition for the reestablishment of diplomatic relations.
1979 Vietnamese take Phnom Penh, China invades Vietnam In January 1979, Vietnamese troops captured Phnom Penh, in attempt to overthrow the government of Pol Pot. In response, the Chinese invaded North Vietnam.
1979 Ali Bhutto Hanged In 1978, a military coup led by General Zia unseated President Bhutto. Bhutto was charged with corruption and sentenced to death. Despite pleas from many world leaders, the new Pakistani government hung Bhutto on April 5.
1979 Soviets invade Afghanistan Soviet troops poured into Afghanistan to support Hafizullah Amin, who had recently unseated Mohammed Taraki. The Soviets quickly sent 40,000 troops, but were unable to put down the rebellion launched by Taraki loyalists. The United States and Islamic countries began giving aid to the rebels, who were called the Mujahedeen. Afghanistan soon became the "Soviet Vietnam," tying up ever greater numbers of Soviet troops and resulting in countless body bags being sent back to Russia.
1979 Idi Amin Overthrown The despotic rule of Idi Amin came to an end when a joint force of Ugandan rebels and Tanzanian troops entered the Ugandan capital of Kampala. Amin fled.
1979 War between Somalia and Ethiopia On August 8, Somalia invaded Ethiopia, the latest chapter in the ongoing dispute over the Ogaden. The Somalis were initially successful in their attack, but the Soviets -- initially patrons of the Somalis -- switched sides and started supporting the Ethiopians. They withdrew all aid to the Somalis, who were forced to rapidly retreat.
1979 Southern Rhodesia Becomes Zimbabwe The white-controlled government, under Ian Smith, successfully held out against majority rule until 1976. At that point, the South Africans decided to withhold further military aid. The white government then began negotiations with black nationalist groups and agreed to transfer majority rule to the Blacks by the end of 1978. In January 1979, white Rhodesians agreed to a constitutional change that would insure majority rule. In addition, they agreed to change the name of Rhodesia to Zimbabwe.
1979 Shah of Iran Ousted Throughout 1978, demonstrations increased against the rule of the Shah. These demonstrations were fueled by religious leaders who opposed the Shah's Western outlook. The exiled Ayatollah Khomeini was especially effective in stirring opposition to the Shah. In August, a movie theater was set on fire by extremists in Abadan. On September 8, the Army opened fire on demonstrators, killing hundreds.

The Shah declared martial law. However, he seemed to lack the will to crack down on demonstrators as he had done in the past. On January 16, the Shah left Iran for exile. One week later, the Ayatollah Khomeini returned from exile and formed an Islamic Revolutionary Government.

1979 Peace treaty Between Egypt and Israel On March 26, in Washington D.C., a peace agreement was signed between Egypt and Israel. The peace treaties, known as the Camp David Accords, called for a complete Israeli withdrawal from Sinai. In return, Egypt would recognize Israel and maintain full diplomatic relations with the Jewish State. Sinai was to be demilitarized, with the United States providing troops to monitor the demilitarization.
1979 Militant Students seize US Embassy In Teheran Angered by the arrival of the Shah for medical treatment in the US, militant students attacked and seized the American embassy in Teheran. The students held 49 embassy employees hostage for over a year. The US attempted a rescue mission but it was aborted.
1979 Trade Act On July 26, President Carter signed the Trade Act Bill. The bill, which was the culmination of the Tokyo round of trade talks, reduced further tariffs on a wide range of items, and introduced a mechanism to handle unfair trade practices.
1979 Three Mile Island A nuclear accident occured at the Three Mile Island nuclear facility near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The accident, which was contained, raised fears of nuclear accidents. In its aftermath, the building of almost all nuclear power plants in the US came to a halt.
1979 Sandinistas Force Samozas out of Nicuragua An ongoing revolution against the government of Anastasio Somoza came to an end when Somoza fled the country. Somoza was forced out when the middle class deserted him after the assassination of newspaper editor Pedro Joaquin Chamorro. The US cut off all aid for the Somoza regime, and eventually the 43-year Somoza dynasty in Nicaragua came to an end. Taking power in its stead were the Sandinistas, who were pro-Communist and received support from Cuba's Castro and the Soviet Union. This antagonized the US and led to American support for the Contras, who opposed the new Nicaraguan government.
1979 Civil War in El Salvador Civil war broke out in El Salvador. A military coup unseated President Carlos Humberto Romero. The goal of the military was to try to stem the increasing violence between right- and left-wingers. The clashes continued and, in December 1980, three American nuns were killed. This incident caused American President Carter to suspend all aid to El Salvador.

Black History Timeline: 1970–1979

The decade of the 1970s is known as the beginning of the post-civil rights movement era. With several federal acts of legislation established to protect the rights of all Americans, the 1970s marked the start of a new era. During this decade, Black people made great strides in politics, academe as well as business.

January: Dr. Clifton Wharton Jr. is appointed as president of Michigan State University. Dr. Wharton is the first African American to head a predominately White university in the 20th century. Wharton is also the first Black person admitted to the School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University, to earn a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Chicago, and to serve as CEO of a Fortune 500 company (TIAA-CREF), a title he assumed in 1987.

February 18: The Chicago Seven, which included Bobby Seale, Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin, David Dellinger, Tom Hayden, Rennie Davis, John Froines, and Lee Weiner, are acquitted of conspiracy charges. However, five of the seven—Davis, Dellinger, Hayden, Hoffman, and Rubin—are convicted of crossing state lines to incite a riot at the 1968 Democratic National Convention. They are sentenced to five years in prison and fined $5,000 each. The convictions are later overturned in 1972 by the United States Court of Appeals.

May: The first issue of the women’s magazine Essence is published. Half a century later (in December 2020), the magazine had a circulation of more than 1 million and a readership base of 8.5 million.

June 16: Kenneth Gibson (1932–2019) is elected the first Black mayor of Newark, New Jersey, ousting a two-term White incumbent and becoming the first Black mayor of a major Northeastern U.S. city. During his tenure, Gibson acquires and uses federal funds to build and rehabilitate thousands of housing units in the city. He serves five terms as mayor, leaving office only after being defeated for reelection in 1986.

August: Businessman Earl Graves Sr. publishes the first issue of Black Enterprise. The magazine continues to thrive half a century later (as of December 2020), growing to a circulation of half a million. The magazine describes itself as the: ". premier business, investing, and wealth-building resource for African Americans. Since 1970, Black Enterprise has provided essential business information and advice to professionals, corporate executives, entrepreneurs, and decision-makers."

Playwright Charles Gordone (1925–1995) wins the Pulitzer Prize in Drama for the play, “No Place to Be Somebody.” He is the first Black person to hold such a distinction. Gordone continues to write and direct in the 1970s and 1980s, takes part in the Cell Block Theatre Program in New Jersey "which used theatre as a rehabilitation tool for inmates," and teaches at Texas A&M University from the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s, notes Broadway Play Publishing Inc.

January 14: George Ellis Johnson's Johnson Products becomes the first Black-owned company to be listed on a major U.S. stock exchange when it begins trading on the American Stock Exchange. Johnson had started the company—famous for its Afro Sheen and Ultra Sheen hair dressing products—with only a $500 loan.

February 9: Leroy “Satchel” Paige is inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, New York. He is the first former Negro Baseball League player to be inducted. After spending more than two decades in the Negro Leagues, he is hired by Major League Baseball's Cleveland Indians, for whom he wins six games and loses one—an astonishing .857 winning percentage. He also has 61 hits, scores 22 runs, and hits two home runs—also astonishing for a pitcher. At age 42, he is the oldest rookie in the Major Leagues and caps his first MLB season by helping the Indians win the World Series.

March: Beverly Johnson is the first African American woman to grace the cover of a major fashion publication when she is featured on the cover of Glamour.

March 30: The Congressional Black Caucus is established in Washington, D.C. The 13 founding members are:

  • Rep. Shirley A. Chisholm (D-N.Y.)
  • Rep. William L. Clay, Sr. (D-Mo.)
  • Rep. George W. Collins (D-Ill.)
  • Rep. John Conyers, Jr. (D-Mich.)
  • Rep. Ronald V. Dellums (D-Calif.)
  • Rep. Charles C. Diggs, Jr. (D-Mich.)
  • Rep. Augustus F. Hawkins (D-Calif.)
  • Rep. Ralph H. Metcalfe (D-Ill.)
  • Rep. Parren J. Mitchell (D-Md.)
  • Rep. Robert N.C. Nix, Sr. (D-Pa.)
  • Rep. Charles B. Rangel (D-N.Y.)
  • Rep. Louis Stokes (D-Ohio)
  • Del. Walter E. Fauntroy (D-D.C.)

Shortly after its founding, President Richard Nixon refuses to meet with the group, which then boycotts his State of the Union address. CBC Chair Diggs writes in a letter to Nixon:

December: The People United to Save Humanity (later renamed the People United to Serve Humanity or Operation PUSH) is founded by the Reverend Jesse Jackson. According to BlackPast, the group seeks "to improve the economic status of African Americans in Chicago, Illinois. Prior to founding PUSH, Jackson was head of the Southern Leadership Conference’s Operation Breadbasket in Chicago."

January 25: New York Congresswoman Shirley Chisholm (1924–2005) is the first Black person to campaign for the Democratic presidential nomination. Chisholm’s bid is unsuccessful. Chisholm, who had been the first Black woman in Congress when she was elected to the House of Representatives in 1968, knows she cannot win the nomination, which eventually goes to George McGovern, but she is running to raise issues she feels are important. She is also the first Black person and the first woman to win delegates for a presidential nomination by a major party.

February 16: Basketball player Wilt Chamberlain becomes the first National Basketball Association player to score more than 30,000 points during his career. Chamberlain, known as "Wilt the Stilt," also scored the most points in a game—100—in a contest in 1962. By comparison, the next best single-game performance was by Michael Jordan, 63, nearly 40 fewer points.

March 10–12: The first National Black Political Convention takes place in Gary, Indiana, and about 10,000 Black people attend. The group's founding document, called the "The Gary Declaration: Black Politics at the Crossroads," begins with these words:

November 17: Barbara Jordan and Andrew Young become the first African American Congressional representatives from the South since 1898. Young, actually the first Black U.S. congressman from Georgia since Reconstruction, goes on to champion the causes he had as a civil rights activist, including anti-poverty and educational programs. He serves in the Congressional Black Caucus and advocates for pacifism he objects to the Vietnam War and establishes the U.S. Institute for Peace.

Civil rights activist Marian Wright Edelman establishes The Children’s Defense Fund as a voice for poor, minority, and disabled children. Edelman serves as a public speaker on behalf of the children, as a lobbyist in Congress, and as president and administrative head of the organization. The agency serves as an advocacy organization and a research center, documenting the problems of children in need and searching for ways to help them. The agency is supported entirely with private funds.

May 20: Thomas Bradley (1917–1998) is elected mayor Los Angeles. Bradley is the first African American to hold this position and is reelected four times, holding the position for 20 years. Bradley also ran for governor of California on the Democratic ticket in 1982 and 1986 but is defeated both times.

August 15: The National Black Feminist Organization is formed by Florynce "Flo" Kennedy and Margaret Sloan-Hunter and supported by Eleanor Holmes Norton, then head and attorney of New York's Human Rights Commission. The group, which emerges from meetings these women held at the New York offices of NOW in May and August 1973, seeks to address problems of discrimination faced by Black women due to their race and gender.

October 16: Maynard H. Jackson Jr. (1938–2003) is elected as the first Black mayor of Atlanta with nearly 60% of the vote, and the first to be elected in any major southern city. The New York Times notes that Maynard represents a "seismic shift in political power from Atlanta's white establishment to its growing Black middle class."

Bettmann Archive / Getty Images

January: Coleman Young (1918–1997) is inaugurated as the first Black mayor of Detroit, after a hotly contested battle. He is re-elected four times and serves as mayor for 20 years. The Detroit Free Press describes his tenure as follows:

April 8: Henry “Hank” Aaron hits his 715th home run for the Atlanta Braves. Aaron’s breaking Babe Ruth's legendary record makes him the all-time leader in home runs in major league baseball. Additionally, according to the National Baseball Hall of Fame:

October 3: Frank Robinson is named the player-manager of the Cleveland Indians and the next spring becomes the first Black manager of any Major League Baseball team. He goes on to manage the Giants, Orioles, Expos, and Nationals.

The Links, Inc. makes the most significant single monetary donation from any Black organization to the United Negro College Fund. t had supported the UNCF since the 1960s, and since that time it has donated more than $1 million.

February 26: The day after Elijah Muhammad (1897–1975), founder of the Nation of Islam dies, and his son Wallace D. Muhammad (1933–2008) succeeds him as leader. The younger Muhammad (also known as Warith Deen Mohammed) would define a new direction for the Nation of Islam, ending the separatist philosophy of his father that had banned whites as "white devils" and changing its name to the World Community of Islam in the West.

July 5: Arthur Ashe (1943–1993) becomes the first Black person to win the men’s singles title at Wimbledon, defeating overwhelming favorite Jimmy Connors.

Historian John Hope Franklin (1915–2009) is elected president of the Organization of American Historians (OAH) for the term 1974–1975. In 1979, Franklin is elected as the president of the American Historical Association. These appointments make Franklin the first Black American to hold such a position.

July 12: Barbara Jordan, a congresswoman representing Texas, is the first Black woman to deliver the keynote address at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago. She tells the assembled delegates:

January: Patricia Roberts Harris (1924–1985) is the first Black woman to hold a cabinet position when President Jimmy Carter appoints her to oversee Housing and Urban Development. She also is the first woman to lead a law school when she serves briefly as dean of Howard Law School in 1969. At her confirmation hearing for the cabinet post, Harris is asked if she is able to "represent the interests of the poor," according to the National Women's Hall of Fame. She responds:

January 23–30: For eight consecutive nights, the miniseries "Roots" is aired on national television. Not only is the miniseries the first to show viewers the impact of enslavement on American society, but it also achieves the highest ratings for a television program.

January 30: Andrew Young is sworn in as the first Black American to become a U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations under President Jimmy Carter. Young goes on to serve two terms as mayor of Atlanta in the 1980s and serve in leadership positions for various organizations, including the National Council of Churches from 2000 to 2001. He also establishes the Andrew Young Foundation in 2003 to advocate for human rights throughout the African diaspora.

September: Minister Louis Farrakhan distances himself from Warith Deen Mohammed's movement World Community of Islam and begins to revive the Nation of Islam. A minister and orator, Farrakhan remains influential in American politics and religion for decades and is known for speaking out against racial injustice toward the Black community.

Faye Wattleton is the first Black woman, and at 35 the youngest individual at the time, to preside over Planned Parenthood Federation of America. She serves in the post until 1992, during which time she directs "the expansion of reproductive health care services for women and families from 1.1 million to about 5 million in 1990," according to the National Women's Hall of fame.

June 26: The U.S. Supreme Court rules in the case of the University of California Regents v. Bakke that affirmative action can be used as a legal strategy to deal with past discrimination. The decision has historical and legal significance because it declares that race can be one of several determining factors in college admission policies, but it rejects the use of racial quotas.

September 15: Muhammad Ali (1942–2016) is the first heavyweight champion to win the title three times by defeating Leon Spinks in New Orleans. Ali's conversion to Islam and draft evasion conviction had led to controversy and his exile from boxing for three years. Despite the hiatus, Ali beats Spinks—who had defeated Ali in an earlier contest taking the World Heavyweight title—in a rematch that did not even last the full 15 rounds.

August 2: The Sugarhill Gang records the 15-minute-long pioneering hip-hop classic “Rapper’s Delight.” The first stanza of the song becomes a famous ditty that inhabits the minds of those who hear it:


Timeline: 1979

Jan 1 An expectation of a decline in the production of gas has created a run on gas to buy it while it's cheaper. This is reducing supply, a rise in gas prices, speculation on gas as a commodity, and it will be spurring inflation in energy importing countries.

Jan 1 The United States and China establish full diplomatic relations.

Jan 7 Vietnam and its Cambodian allies announce the fall of Phnom Penh. The Khmer Rouge retreats to the forests along the border of Thailand. Prince Sihanouk is siding with the Khmer Rouge against the Vietnamese.

Jan 16 The Shah and his family have left for Egypt. In Iran, streets are crowded with joyous people shouting "Shah raft, Shah raft!" (the Shah is gone).

Feb 1 Patty Hearst is released from prison. Her seven-year sentence for bank robbery has been commuted by President Carter.

Iran's Prime Minister Bakhtiar, Sorbonne University PhD, and anti-fascist underground vet.

Feb 1 In the spirit of a new freedom for Iran, Prime Minister Bakhtiar has allowed the Ayatollah Khomeini to return. Millions greet Khomeini, who calls for expelling all foreigners from Iran.

Feb 8 The Carter administration believes its negotiations with the Somoza regime have failed. It announces that the US is severing longstanding military ties with Nicaragua and ordering US personnel serving in Nicaragua to return to the United States.

Feb 11 Khomeini has been demanding Bakhtiar's resignation. Youthful Khomeini supporters seize weapons and take control of the streets. Bakhtiar goes underground and will resurface in Paris in July. US citizens who have been working in Iran begin to leave, joining many wealthy Iranians who for weeks have been emigrating.

Feb 12 In Rhodesia, insurgents use surface-to-air missiles to shoot down another Rhodesian airliner. This time they kill 58. White Rhodesians are becoming less willing to continue the war. But Rhodesia's military presses on.

Feb 14 In Kabul, Afghanistan, extremists kidnap and kill US Ambassador Adolph Dubs.

Feb 15 China's 1950 treaty with the Soviet Union expires. China chooses this day to send about 80,000 soldiers and 300 tanks into northern Vietnam. China describes as reasons for the attack Vietnam's mistreatment of its ethnic Chinese minority and Vietnamese occupation of the Spratly Islands, which are claimed by China. Some people believe that China wants to punish Vietnam for its war against the Khmer Rouge and to teach the Vietnamese that they should consider China's desires concerning the region.

Feb 22 The US announces that its aid to Afghanistan will be drastically cut.

Feb 22 The Caribbean Island of Saint Lucia becomes independent from Britain.

Mar 16 The Chinese in Vietnam have suffered against Vietnam's military. They withdraw. Their casualties will be estimated at more than 60,000, including about 26,000 killed.

Mar 10-20 Afghan army officers in the city of Herat mutiny and they are crushed.

Mar 13 On the island of Grenada, in the Caribbean, a Marxist, Maurice Bishop, overthrows Eric Gairy, who had a reputation for corruption and authoritarianism. It has been claimed that Bishop made his move believing Gairy was going to attack Bishop's movement. The coup is popular. Bishop will replace parliament with worker's councils and transform Grenada into a socialist state with collective farms but also free enterprise and trade with the United States.

Mar 20 In Moscow, President Taraki of Afghanistan requests Soviet troops. He is told by Brezhnev that Soviet forces "would only play into the hands of our enemies &ndash both yours and ours." Brezhnev advises Taraki to go slow with social reforms and to seek broad support for his regime. He advises Taraki to remove Prime Minister Amin. He promises Taraki military equipment.

Mar 26 President Sadat of Egypt and Prime Minister Begin of Israel sign a peace treaty in Washington. The main features of the treaty are recognition of each other's country and an end to the state of war engendered by Egypt since 1948.

Mar 28 A cooling malfunction at a nuclear power plant at Three Mile Island, in Pennsylvania, causes a partial core meltdown. An above normal amount of radiation is released.

Apr 5 President Carter is in his third-year in office. Responding to growing energy shortages, he announces a plan for gradual decontrol of oil prices, and he proposes a windfall profits tax. The average price of crude oil is $15.85 per barrel.

Apr 6 Measurements of radiation in milk from Pennsylvania and New Jersey indicate to the New York State Health Department that the accident at Three Mile Island constituted "no public health concern whatsoever."

Apr 11 Idi Amin of Uganda has been at war against Tanzania, where anti-Amin Ugandans gathered. On this day, Tanzanian forces and Ugandan exiles force Amin to flee Uganda's capital city, Kampala. Amin is headed for Libya. Eventually he will find asylum in Saudi Arabia.

Apr 17 The newly converted Roman Catholic emperor, Jean-Bédel Bokassa, since 1966 has ruled in what is now called the Central African Empire. He dislikes schoolchildren protesting against the compulsory wearing of school uniforms. The children are arrested and around 100 of them are massacred.

Apr 20 A rabbit chased by hounds swims toward President Carter's boat, while he is fishing. Carter fends off the rabbit with a paddle. The press describes Carter as having been attacked by a killer swamp rabbit. The incident is called "Paws" with the movie "Jaws" in mind.

Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher

In June, millions cheer John Paul's first visit to Poland as Pope.

Lining up for gas, June 15

May 1 Greenland gets home rule. Greenland became an integral part of the Kingdom of Denmark in 1953. It was granted home rule by the Folketing (Danish parliament) in 1978. The law went into effect on May 1, 1979. The Queen of Denmark, Margrethe II, remains Greenland's Head of State. Greenland's voters subsequently chose to leave the European Economic Community upon achieving self-rule.

May 4 Britain has been suffering through high unemployment and collapsing public services. Labor Unions have been striking for higher wages, troubling the Labor government of James Callaghan. Margaret Thatcher has promised to end economic decline and reduce the size of government. She becomes the new prime minister.

May 21 Mexico breaks diplomatic relations with Nicaragua and urges the US to end all remaining assistance programs to the Somoza regime.

May 24 About 300 Sandinista insurgents are reported to have entered Nicaragua from Costa Rica.

Jun 1 The Sandinistas start their all-out military offensive against the Somoza regime.

Jun 1 In Rhodesia, whites have allowed blacks who are not involved in the Bush War to run for political office and to share power with the whites (who are 22 to 1 minority in the country). The majority black political parties have boycotted the elections. A black United Methodist Church bishop, Abel Muzorewa, is declared prime minister. Britain does not recognize his government as legitimate. The insurgency against white rule in Rhodesia continues.

Jun 3 An off-shore exploritory oil well explodes in the Gulf of Mexico, 50 miles from the coast of the Mexican state of Campeche (on the Yucatan Peninsula). It will take Mexico's oil company, Premex, more than nine months to stop oil from gushing into the gulf. The oil will reach the shore of Texas and it will ruin fishing off the coast of Campeche well into the 21st century.

Jun 15 The US has people bumper to bumper in long lines waiting to buy gas.

Jun 18 The Soviet Union's Leonid Brezhnev and US President Carter sign the SALT II agreement in Vienna, an agreement to limit the number of missile launching facilities.

Jun 20 While a camera is rolling, a Nicaraguan National Guard soldier kills ABC TV news correspondent Bill Stewart and his interpreter Juan Espinosa.

Jun 30 President Carter's approval rating has dropped to 25 percent, lower than President Nixon's during the Watergate scandal.

Jul 3 President Carter signs a directive for secret aid to the opponents of Afghanistan's government. His National Security Advisor, Zbigniew Brzezinski, tells Carter that this aid will induce a Soviet military intervention. He wants to draw the Russians into a disaster &ndash its Vietnam War.

Jul 15 President Carter makes his so-called malaise speech. The speech is his response to his question why the nation has been unable to resolve its energy problem. He speaks of our "erosion of confidence in the future" and says that we can develop a new unity of purpose and new confidence. He concludes: "Let us commit ourselves together to a rebirth of the American spirit. Working together with our common faith we cannot fail."

Jul 16 In Iraq, President Hasan al-Bakr resigns and is replaced by the acting president, Vice President Saddam Hussein.

Jul 17 The dictator Anastasio Somoza flees from Nicaragua to his Florida island villa in the United States. There he declares that a Communist conspiracy has driven him from power. Much of Latin America is pleased by the fall of Somoza.

Jul 19 Marxist Sandinistas take power in the capital city, Managua.

Jul 31 Former governor of California, Ronald Reagan, visits the underground nerve center of US missile defense, NORAD, in Colorado. In response to a question from Reagan, the NORAD commander tells him that if the Soviets drop a missile next to the base "It would blow us away." Reagan is surprised and his interest in protection against nuclear strikes is intensified.

Aug 6 Paul Volcker takes office as the new chairman of the Federal Reserve (the "Fed"). There is hope that he will succeed in reducing inflation.

Aug 9 The first British nudist beach is established in Brighton, many years after nude beaches were established in France and near San Francisco, California, and two years after the opening of a nude beach in Australia. Prime Minister Thatcher takes no responsibility for it, although it occurs under her watch.

Aug 27 Provisional Irish Republic Army terrorists have planted a 50-pound bomb on Lord Mountbatten's 30-foot sailboat. It is detonated by radio control . Mountbatten, a grandson 14 and his 15-year old friend are also killed, along with the 83-year-old mother-in-law of Mountbatten's eldest daughter. Other bombs planted by the Provisional IRA terrorists kill18 British soldiers in Northern Ireland.

Sep 6 Rhodesia announces that its forces are staging a land and air attack against troops and installations of the Mozambican Army as well as insurgent bases inside Mozambique.

President Amin of Afghanistan, a Columbia University graduate, accused by the Russians of of being a CIA agent.

Sep 11 The Carter administration warns Congress that failure by the United States to supply aid to Nicaragua could push the new leadership there toward Communism.

Sep 16 In Afghanistan, squabbling within the Taraki regime results in Taraki's death. Vice President Hafizullah Amin takes power.

Oct 6 The energy crisis continues. Inflation in the US has been running at an annual rate of 10.75 percent, unprecedented for peacetime.

Oct 9 In Afghanistan, Amin announces that his predecessor, Taraki, died from "a severe and prolonged illness."

Oct 26 South Korea's president, Park Chung Hee, is assassinated by his KCIA chief, Kim Jaekyu.

Nov 4 The US has informed the Khomeini regime in Iran that the former Shah of Iran, Pahlavi, has come to the United States from Mexico to receive medical treatment. Pahlavi has serious illnesses, including cancer. About 3,000 youthful Iranians invade the US Embassy and take 53 Americans and others hostage. They are outraged over Pahlavi having entered the US, and they demand that the United States send Pahlavi to Iran to stand trial.

Nov 1-31 Afghans have been fleeing to Iran and Pakistan and organizing resistance against what they view as the "atheistic" and "infidel" Communist Amin regime. President Amin launches a successful military operation against anti-government forces in Paktria Province (next to Pakistan) obliterating a few villages. He also attempts to appease opinion by promising more religious freedom and to repair mosques. He begins distributing the Koran. He refers to Allah in his speeches and describes his revolution as "totally based on the principles of Islam."

Nov 20 According to the Muslim calendar it is the beginning of a new century. Juhayman bien Seif al Uteybi believes in signs of the coming of the Mahdi. Around 200 of his heavily armed Sunni followers, with an appointed young Mahdi, take over the crowded Grand Mosque in Mecca, believing that with God they are overthrowing the Saudi government, which they believe to be corrupt and in league with the devil.

Nov 21 The Carter administration suspects that the seige at Mecca is a creation of Iran's Ayatolah Khomeini. Iran's foreign ministry complains that "Zionist and US circles" are associating the uprising with Iran. Then Khomeini accuses the US and Israel of orchestating what he describes as the despicable horrors at the Grand Mosque at Mecca. A wave of anti-US demostrations and attacks against US embassies sweeps across the Muslim world, first on this day in Pakistan.

Nov 24 Pope Jean Paul II is visiting Turkey. There, Mehmet Ali Agca escapes from prison and describes the Pope's visit as part of the infidel plot in Mecca and the Pope as masquerading as a man of faith. He warns that "the crusaders" will pay for this. It is Agca who will shoot and wound the Pope, in 1981.

Nov 25-30 In Saudi Arabia's eastern oil producing region, along the Persian Gulf, youths belonging to the county's Shiite minority rebel. The Saudi government blacks out all news of the uprising. With armored personnel carriers, machine guns, helicopter gunships and artillery, the Saudi National Guard crushes the rising. The older generation of Shiite leaders in the area successfully sue for peace.

Dec 4 The Carter administration responds to anti-US demonstrations and the siege at Mecca with a formulation that will be called the Carter Doctrine, intended to demonstrate US strength and commitment to the defense of countries in the Persian Gulf region that are of "vital interest" to the United States. Within a few days US negotiators will fly to Oman to discuss establishing a military base. It is the beginning of an increased military presence in the Gulf region.

Dec 4 The Saudi Press Agency issues a statement by Prince Nayef that "the purge of renegades" from the Grand Mosque has been completed. Many pilgrims have died, their number to be officially declared as 26. Independent observers and witnesses estimate that more than 1,000 have died.

Dec 4 US officials announce that the Soviet Union is giving low-key support to US efforts to release the hostages in Iran.

Dec 10 In response to the siege at Mecca, the Carter administration has dispatched the carrier USS. Kitty Hawk and a battle group from the Philippines to the Persian Gulf. Military leadership in the Soviet Union, initially cool to the idea of sending troops into Afghanistan has decided that if the US can make such a deployment tens of thousands of kilometers from its territory why should the Soviet Union not be able to defend its positions in neighboring Afghanistan. The Soviet military begins to assemble a force of 75,000 to 80,000 along the Afghan-Soviet border.

Babrak Kamal subsequent
President of Afghanistan

Dec 12 At South Korea's headquarters and Ministry of Defense, a bloody shoot out leaves Chun Doo-hwan and close friends in control of South Korea's military.

Dec 24 The Soviet Union begins sending troops into Afghanistan.

Dec 27 It will be said that on this day in Afghanistan, Soviet KGB agents in Afghan uniforms, storm the presidential palace and kill President Amin and around 200 of his guards. It is to be said that Amin lied about Taraki's death back in September, Taraki having been shot. Amin had carried out purges within the ruling political party, the PDPA (People Democratic Party of Afghanistan). The Soviet Union had been happy with Taraki and believed that Amin was responsible for having created instability. The Soviet government describes Amin as having been the head of "a bloody dynasty" and an agent of "United States imperialism."

Dec 29 Another member of the PDPA, who had been in safe exile as the ambassador to the Czech Republic, becomes President of Afghanistan: Babrak Kamal.

Dec 31 President Carter tells ABC News that the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan has "made a more dramatic change in my own opinion of what the Soviets' ultimate goals are than anything they've done in the previous time I've been in office."


Timeline: 1978

Jan 1 The Soviet economy is in crisis. Its growth rate for 1977 having been around 1-2 percent per year, down from over 5 percent in the 1960s. The Soviet economy is burdened by military spending. Investment is bureaucratic rather than interested in new ideas. People still lived in cramped housing and are seeing little material progress for themselves. Cynicism is high and alcoholism prevalent. People are taking little pride in their work. The massive effort in education is producing people with talent that will go unused.

Jan 10 The owner of Nicaragua's leading newspaper, La Prensa, Pedro Chamorro, is assassinated. He was a critic of the Somoza dictatorship, and many believe that the Somoza dictatorship is responsible. Nicaraguans demonstrate in the streets and set fire to buildings owned by Somoza.

Jan 23 Sweden becomes the first nation to ban aerosol sprays that are thought to damage earth's protective ozone layer.

Jan 1-31 In Iran, Shah Pahlavi's steps at liberalization has emboldened his opponents. An organization of writers and publishers has called for freedom of thought. Lawyers have joined together and called for the abolition of military tribunals and an end to torture by the Shah's police, SAVAK. Teachers and academics have joined students in demanding academic freedom. This month, January, 4,000 religious students demand restoration of freedoms. The police arrive and point their guns at the demonstrators. The demonstrators dare the police to shoot and the police do, killing between 10 and 72. A new surge against the rule of the Shah begins.

Feb 15 Serial killer Ted Bundy is captured in Florida.

Mar 18 In Pakistan, former Prime Minister Zulficar Ali Bhutto (father of Benazir) is charged with ordering the assassination of a political opponent. He is sentenced to death by hanging.

Apr 7 President Carter postpones production of the neutron bomb which kills people with radiation but leaves buildings relatively intact.

Apr 7 The United Nations forms the World Health Organization.

Apr 18 In a close vote, after months of political wrangling, the US Senate ratifies the Panama Canal Treaty.

Apr 19 At the funeral of a prominent, murdered leftist, Mir Akbar Khyber, an estimated 10,000 to 30,000 listen to speeches by Nur Muhammad Taraki, Hafizullah Amin and Babrak Karmal &ndash members of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan. President Daoud is alarmed by the gathering and orders the arrest of Communist leaders.

Nur Taraki, amateur poet and new president of Afghanistan

Apr 26-8 Claiming an anti-Islamic coup has begun, President Daoud has mobilized his military. He has had Taraki arrested and Amin put under house arrest. Karmal has escaped to the Soviet Union. Using his family as messengers, Amin orders an uprising against Daoud. Rebel soldiers win against troops loyal to Daoud. At the presidential palace, Daoud and most of his family are assassinated.

May 1 Afghanistan is renamed the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan and Nur Mohammed Taraki is named president.

May 11 China is engulfed in discussion over a newspaper article that disseminated a new Communist Party slogan: "Practice Is the Only Criterion for Judging the Truth." The article argues that science and Marxism are amenable to revision, supplementation, and development in practice. It is considered a rejection of Mao-like formulations and declarations. Mao has been dead since September 1976.

May 18 In the Soviet Union, a nuclear scientist and political dissident, Yuri Orlov, is sentenced to 7 years hard labor for distributing 'counterrevolutionary material'.

Jun 6 In California a tax revolt led by Howard Jarvis results in voter approval of a ballot initiative, Proposition 13, which cuts property taxes nearly 60 percent.

Jul 17-8 At an economic summit meeting in Bonn, Germany, there is talk of relatively low gasoline prices in the United States encouraging waste and stalling exploration for more supplies. Interested in less dependence on foreign oil supplies, President Carter tells the conference of discontinuing price controls and letting gas prices rise to world levels.

Aug 19 In Iran, a movie theatre in the capital city, Tehran, catches fire, killing more than 400 patrons. The fire may have been set by religious zealots, who are known to oppose attending such movies, but many blame the Shah and SAVAK. A more intense wave of demonstrations erupt.

Begin, Carter and Sadat at Camp David

President Jimmy Carter and Governor-elect Bill Clinton

Sep 3 In the Bush War in Rhodesia, insurgents using surface-to-air missiles shoot down a Rhodesian airliner, and they massacre the crash survivors. Thirty-eight are killed.

Sep 8 The Shah sends troops, helicopter gunships and tanks against crowds of protesters in Teheran. Barricades rise around the city. People arm themselves with Molotov cocktails. The day is to be known by opponents of the Shah as Black Friday.

Sep 17 The Camp David Accords are signed by Menachem Begin of Israel and Anwar Sadat of Egypt, witnessed by President Carter. The Accords allow self-government in the West Bank and the Gaza strip, promise a withdrawal of Israeli forces and 4,500 Israeli civilians from Egypt's Sinai region.

Oct 6 From Iraq the exiled Ayatollah Khomeini has been urging actions against the Shah, including work stoppages that have swept Iran. The Shah has asked Iraq's acting president, Saddam Hussein, to expel Khomeini. Saddam has accused Khomeini, a Shia, of fomenting rebellion in Iraq. Syria allows Khomeini refuge but Khomeini heads for France. From France Khomeini will urge rebellion against the Shah and also rebellion in Iraq.

Oct 16 Cardinal Karol Wojtyl becomes the 264th pope, Pope John Paul II &ndash the first Polish pope.

Oct 24 President Carter speaks to the nation about inflation, which he describes as having increased from an average of 6.5 percent in the last ten years to an average of eight percent during his administration. He speaks of uncertainties but that his administration "will slash Federal hiring and reduce the Federal work force. restrain Federal pay. delay further tax cuts [to reduce the budget deficit] . and use Federal policy to encourage more competition."

Nov 5 Fifty-six white American teachers of transcendental meditation arrive in war-torn Rhodesia. They plan to travel through the country to train whites and blacks in techniques to reduce violence.

Nov 7 In the US, Republicans gain 15 seats in the House of Representatives and the Democrats maintain a 277-158 majority. The Republicans gain three seats in the Senate, where the Democrats remain a majority: 58 to 41. In Arkansas, Bill Clinton, 32, is elected governor. Twelve out of sixteen anti-tax initiatives on state ballots pass.

Nov 7-8 The Shah recognizes that his power is diminished. He is losing the support of ordinary soldiers. He still has Iran under military rule, which he says is only temporary to restore order. On television he promises not to repeat past mistakes and to make amends. He has thirteen prominent members of his regime arrested and says he will continue his efforts to form a coalition government.

Nov 18 At Jonestown in Guyana, a visiting US congressman, Leo Ryan, is shot and killed while departing with people who want to leave the settlement. Jim Jones recognizes that he is now in trouble. His solution is mass suicide. Followers drink poisoned Kool Aid, and a few shots are fired, killing 918, including more than 270 children and "Father" Jones.

Nov 24 President Carter has cut supplies to Nicaragua's dictator, Somoza (President Anastasio Somoza Debayle). Venezuela is aiding Nicaragua's rebels, the Sandinistas. The US is seeking a democratic alternative in Nicaragua and has proposed a nationwide plebiscite to decide whether Somoza should stay in power.

Nov 1-31 In the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev, 47, has had a few years of success and innovation as a Communist Party governmental functionary. He is appointed Central Committee Secretary in charge of agriculture.

Dec 5 After two days of talks in Moscow, Taraki of Afghanistan and Brezhnev of the Soviet Union sign a treaty that commits their countries to 20 years of friendship and cooperation. Article 4 of the treaty allows for Soviet intervention to protect Afghanistan from an armed invasion.

Dec 11 In China, the Communist Party, now led by Deng Xiaoping, chooses a major reversal in economic policy. Agricultural is to be decollectivized.

Dec 25 In Cambodia, the Khmer Rouge has been hostile toward the Vietnamese. Relations between Cambodia's Khmer Rouge regime and Vietnam has been further aggravated by refugees fleeing from Cambodia into Vietnam. The Khmer Rouge has crossed the border into Vietnam. Vietnam launches a military offensive against the Khmer Rouge.

Dec 27 The Spanish people approve a new constitution, a referendum that officially ends 40 years of military dictatorship. Spain has become one of the world's stable democracies.

Dec 29 The Shah asks an old opponent, Shahpur Bakhtiar, 63, to become prime minister and to form a new civilian government.


Speak & Spell

Texas Instruments Inc. introduces Speak & Spell, a talking learning aid for children aged 7 and up. Its debut marked the first electronic duplication of the human vocal tract on a single integrated circuit. Speak & Spell used linear predictive coding to formulate a mathematical model of the human vocal tract and predict a speech sample based on previous input. It transformed digital information processed through a filter into synthetic speech and could store more than 100 seconds of linguistic sounds.


FOOD HISTORY TIMELINE1976 to 1980

1976 There are no red M&Ms from 1976 to 1987.

1976 The U.S. Department of Labor upgraded the definition of 'Chef' from 'domestic' to 'professional.'

1976 The popular food coloring, Red Dye No. 2, was banned by the FDA because studies had shown it might cause cancer. Red M&Ms disappeared for 11 years because of the ban.

1976 Iceland broke off diplomatic relations with Great Britain when the two couldn't settle their disagreement on the 'cod war' fishing dispute.

1976 Carl Peter Henrik Dam Died. Dam was a Danish biochemist who discovered vitamin K in 1939.

1976 'The Taste of Southern Cooking' by Edna Lewis was published.

1976 Jimmy Buffet's 'Margaritaville' was released.

1976 The musical 'Bubbling Brown Sugar' opened on Broadway.

1976 'Spice Girls' singer Emma Bunton was born today.

1976 Crystalline sugar produced from sweet sorghum.

1976 The $2 bill is reintroduced by the U.S. Treasury.

1976 In Paris, two California wines won top honors at a blind wine tasting by the best of France's wine experts. The French were shocked, and the wine world was changed forever.

1976 Great-Britain & Iceland terminate their codfish war.

1976 'Play That Funky Music' by Wild Cherry hit #1 on the charts

1976 The largest dolphin caught with rod and reel weighed 87 pounds. It was caught off the coast of Costa Rica.

1976 'Hotel California' was released by The Eagles. One of the best selling albums of all time. (An album is what we had before CDs).

1976 On the 'Barney Miller' TV show, Wojo's hippie girlfriend baked a batch of special brownies for the precinct.

1976 Water rationing went into effect in Marin County, north of San Francisco.

1976 The U.S. and Russia both extend their fishing rights to 200 miles offshore.

1976 Pierrier water was introduced in the U.S.

1976 To settle a sex discrimination lawsuit, New York's "21" Club hired its first waitress.

1976 The supersonic Concorde commercial aircraft built with funding from the French and British governments, began regular service today.

1977 Toots Shor died January 23 (born May 6, 1903). American restaurateur, Toots Shor's Restaurant was a gathering place for New York celebrities during the 1940s and 1950's.

1977 Apple Computer incorporates.

1977 The heaviest lobster known was caught off Nova Scotia, weighing in at 44 lb 6 oz (20.14 kg).

1977 Alice Cooper's pet boa constrictor died after its dinner of a rat bit it first.

1977 The Apple II computer went on sale priced at $1298

1977 The trans-Alaska oil pipeline opened. It takes oil 38 days to travel 800 miles from the fields in Prudhoe Bay to the port of Valdez.

1977 A power blackout hit New York. Power was out for about 25 hours. There was widespread looting, unlike the calm of the 1965 blackout.

1977 On July 28 at 11:02 p.m. the first oil from Prudhoe Bay arrived at Valdez in the trans-Alaskan pipeline. It took 38 days to travel the 800 miles.

1977 Buffalo, New York declared this day 'Chicken Wing Day' in honor of the famous Buffalo Chicken Wings, created by Teressa Bellissimo in October, 1964 at the Anchor Bar in Buffalo, New York, for her son and some friends for a midnight snack.

1977 Fiona Apple, singer, songwriter was born.

1977 The Guinness Book of World Records notes that Peter Dowdeswell managed to consume 40 sandwiches in 17 minutes, 53.9 seconds at a California donut shop on October 17, 1977. Each sandwich was 6 X 3 inches, spread with jam and butter.

1977 Meat Loaf (Marvin Lee Aday) 2nd album 'Bat Out of Hell' was released.

1977 The largest albacore weighed 88 pounds and was caught off the Canary Islands.

1977 Ruth Graves Wakefield died. Inventor of the Toll House Cookie, the first chocolate chip cookie, at the Toll House Inn neart Whitman, Massachusetts in the 1930s.

1977 'Bubbling Brown Sugar' closed at the ANTA Playhouse in NYC after 766 performances.

1977 Frustrated by an unsuccessful attempt to obtain funding for a water project, Kinney, Minnesota 'secedes' from the United States and applies for foreign aid. In support, Duluth's frozen pizza king Gino Palucci donates 10 cases of frozen pizza.

1978 Helen Corbitt died. American chef and cookbook author. Texas Monthly declared Corbitt to be the 'Tastemaker of the Century.'

1978 France ended price controls on bread.

1978 Charles Best died. Co-discoverer in 1921 (with Dr. F. Banting) of the hormone insulin, used to treat diabetes.

1978 President Jimmy Carter signed a bill legalizing home brewing on Oct 14. However states could still set there own limits.

1978 The U.S. Commerce Department announced that hurricane names would no longer be exclusively female. Both male and female names would now be used.

1978 Ben & Jerry’s Homemade Ice Cream and Crepes opened in a former gas station in Vermont.

1978 Sweden banned aerosol cans.

1978 The Humane Slaughter Act of 1978 dictates strict animal handling and slaughter practices which are closely monitored by government inspectors.

1978 Reese's Pieces peanut butter candy was introduced, an extension of the Reese's Peanut Butter Cup line.

1978 'Cheeseburger In Paradise' by Jimmy Buffett peaks at #32 on the charts.

1978 Garfield, the lasagna eating cat was born. He was brought into this world by cartoonist Jim Davis.

1978 Frankie Valli's 'Grease' reached number 1 on the charts.

1978 'Boogie Oogie Oogie' by Taste Of Honey is #1 on the charts

1978 The largest squid ever caught was taken in Thimble Tickle Bay, Newfoundland. It was 55 feet long and weighed two tons.

1978 The 'Amoco Cadiz' oil tanker ran aground on Portsall Rocks, 3 miles off the Coast of Brittany, France. It split in two and spilled its entire cargo of 220,000 tons of crude oil. This was the largest oil spill by a grounded tanker to date.

1978 Sir Edward Salisbury died (born April 16, 1886). English botanist and ecologist. Director of Royal Botanical Gardens (1943-1956). His books include 'The Living Garden' (1935), 'The Biology of Garden Weeds' (1962).

1978 Joseph Delteil died (born April 20, 1894). French writer and poet. Also wrote 'La Cuisine palolithique' (1964) featuring cuisine naturelle using unprocessed foods.

1979 Sardines return to California waters after an absence of about 40 years.

1979 The number of horses working on British farms falls to 3,575, down from 300,000 in 1950.

1979
Sardines return to California waters after an absence of about 40 years.

1979 The number of horses working on British farms falls to 3,575, down from 300,000 in 1950.

1979 The 12th & final episode of 'Fawlty Towers' was broadcast.

1979 Pillsbury acquires the Green Giant Company.

1979 McDonald's introduced the Happy Meal for kids.

1979 Paul Prudhomme opened K-Paul's Louisiana Kitchen. Louisiana born chef and restaurateur, he owned his first restaurant at the age of 17. He has also written several best selling cookbooks.

1979 The first Zagat restaurant survey was published.

1979 Conrad Nicholson Hilton died. Founder of one of the most well known and largest hotel chains. It all began when he and his father turned their large New Mexico house into an inn for traveling salesmen.

1979 The movie 'Meatballs' starring Bill Murray premeired today.

1979
Singer and actress Brandy was born (Brandy Norwood).

1979 ‘Mr. Ed’ , the talking horse, died. This was not the horse who actually starred on the TV show, but another horse who did publicity work as Mr. Ed. The original Mr. Ed (Bamboo Harvester) died in 1970.

1979 'Reunited' by Peaches & Herb hit #1 on the charts

1979 General Mills introduced 'Honey Nut Cheerioes'.

1979 President Jimmy Carter was attacked by a rabbit while on a canoe trip in Georgia. He beat it away with a paddle. (Man eating, swimming rabbits?)

1979 American actress Rachael Leigh Cook was born. She began working as a model at age 10, and her picture is still used on boxes of Milk-Bone Dog Biscuits.

1979 'Sugar Babies' opened on Broadway.

1979 The largest bluefin tuna weighed 1,496 pounds. It was caught in Nova Scotia.

1979 There are about 6,000 KFC (Kentucky Fried Chicken) restaurants, and they sell 2.7 billion pieces of chicken.

1979 Average commercial fertilizer use on U.S. farms during the 1970s was about 43.6 million tons per year.

1979 U.S. agricultural exports were about $19.8 billion a year during the 1970s (19% of total exports).

1980 The New England Culinary Institute was founded.

1980 Herman Tarnower died. American physician and author of the bestselling 'The Complete Scarsdale Medical Diet' (1979). He was shot to death by Jean Harris.

1980 The play 'Lunch Hour' opened on Broadway.

1980 Bill and his wife T.J. Palmer opened the first Applebee's restaurant, T.J. Applebee’s Rx for Edibles & Elixirs, in Atlanta, Georgia on Nov 19.

1980 28,000 Canada geese spend a few nights on Silver Lake in Rochester, Minnesota.

1980 Joy Adamson died. Naturalist and author of 'Born Free' about Elsa, a lion cub. She had also researched culinary and medicinal uses of various plants in Kenya.

1980 "Escape (The Pina Colada Song)" by Rupert Holmes is #1 on the charts.

1980 Due to record high sugar prices, Coca Cola begins substituting high fructose corn syrup for half of the sucrose (sugar) used in Coca Cola.

1980 McDonald's test marketed Chicken McNuggets in Knoxville, Tennessee. They are so popular that they have to look for a second supplier.

1980 Cook's magazine begins publication. Christopher Kimball is the publisher.

1980 Lactase enzymes evaluated provided basis for lactose-reduced dairy products.

1980 Victor Sen Yung died (born Oct 18, 1915). American character actor, he played the cook Hop Sing on the TV show 'Bonanza'. He also played Charlie Chan's son, Jimmy Chan in numerous Charlie Chan movies.

1980 Earle McAusland, publisher/editor of Gourmet magazine died at age 89.

1980 The California Supreme Court rules that Ted Giannoulas can appear in public in his San Diego Chicken suit as long as it does not have the call letters of the radio station (KGB) that first used it as a promotional gambit.

1980 The oldest known goldfish in Great Britain, Frederica, died at the age of 40.

1980 European Community countries banned the use of hormones in cattle feed.

1980 Harland Sanders died at Shelbyville, Kentucky. Founder of Kentucky Fried Chicken fast food restaurant chain.

1980 The population of the U.S. is now 226,545,805. Farmers are 3.4% of the labor force. There are about 2,439,500 farms, averaging about 426 acres.

Please feel free to link to any pages of FoodReference.com from your website.
For permission to use any of this content please E-mail: [email protected]
All contents are copyright © 1990 - 2021 James T. Ehler and www.FoodReference.com unless otherwise noted.
All rights reserved.
You may copy and use portions of this website for non-commercial, personal use only.
Any other use of these materials without prior written authorization is not very nice and violates the copyright.
Please take the time to request permission.

Free Professional and Technical Research, White Papers, Case Studies, Magazines, and eBooks


Police want to question Gacy

Lt. Kozenczak, whose son attends the same high school as Piest, insists on an in-depth investigation. He learns Gacy, whose PDM Contractors had recently remodeled Nisson Pharmacy, was the man Piest went to speak to about a job. Gacy is asked to come to the police station for questioning.

At 11 p.m., Gacy calls Kozenczak and asks: "You still want to talk to me?"

"Yeah," Kozenczak responds. "How long do you think it will take you to get here?"

Kozenczak waits until 1 a.m., but Gacy doesn't show.

Police later learn that after the phone call, Gacy goes to his attic, takes the body of the Piest boy and moves it into the trunk of his car. He drives south of Joliet and dumps the body into the Des Plaines River.

Des Plaines police Lt. Joe Kozenczak, center, had been chief of detectives for six months -- a self-described neophyte -- when the Gacy case broke in December 1978. He is flanked by Officers David Sommerschield, left, and Ron Adams in this 1980 photo. (Charles Osgood/Chicago Tribune)


1991-1992

MSF provides medical services in nine of the 20 refugee camps established for the Rohingya in southwestern Bangladesh. Food, water, and sanitation in the camps are inadequate.

The scene at Dumdumia camp (above), in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, shows the lack of adequate shelter.

Rohingya refugees arrive in Bangladesh, bringing only what they can carry. The governments of Bangladesh and Myanmar sign an agreement to repatriate refugees, and the camps are closed to new arrivals in the spring. By fall, forced repatriation begins, despite protests by the international community. Over the following years, hundreds of thousands of Rohingya are sent back to Myanmar, and new refugees attempting the journey are denied entry to Bangladesh.

Of the 20 camps that were built in Bangladesh in the early '90s, two remain: Nayapara camp near Teknaf (above) and Kutupalong camp near Ukhia. Living conditions remain dire—a study finds that 58 percent of children and 53 percent of adults are chronically malnourished.

Some 79 percent of the shelters in the two remaining camps in Bangladesh are flooded during the rainy season. The substandard conditions contribute to cases of diarrhea, respiratory infections, and malnutrition. At the MSF therapeutic feeding center serving the makeshift camp near Teknaf, staff take care of an average of 40 severely malnourished children each day.

MSF runs a medical facility in Kutupalong makeshift camp in Bangladesh. Only a small percentage of Rohingya seeking refuge in Bangladesh are officially recognized as refugees. Unrecognized Rohingya refugees are vulnerable to harassment and exploitation.

MSF’s clinic in Kutupalong makeshift camp provides comprehensive medical care to Rohingya refugees and the local community in Bangladesh. The October 9 Rohingya militant attacks on border police in Myanmar’s Rakhine state trigger reprisals against the Rohingya community, bringing a new wave of refugees across the border and an influx of patients to the MSF clinic in November and December.

A Rohingya family arrives at the Bangladesh border from Myanmar. Following Rohingya militia attacks on several police and army posts in Myanmar on August 25, state security forces launch a campaign of horrific violence and terror targeting the Rohingya community. More than 530,000 Rohingya are driven out of Myanmar. The cycle of mass displacement begins again, this time on an unprecedented scale.

A newly arrived Rohingya family shelters in their tent (above) at Unchiparang settlement. Most of the recent arrivals have moved into makeshift settlements without adequate access to shelter, food, clean water, or latrines.

Medical facilities in Bangladesh, including those run by MSF, are quickly overwhelmed. In September, MSF calls for an immediate scale-up of humanitarian aid to the Rohingya in Bangladesh to avoid a public health disaster. MSF also urges the government of Myanmar to allow independent humanitarian organizations unfettered access to northern Rakhine state.

An outbreak of diphtheria rages in the refugee camps in Cox's Bazar. Though diphtheria is covered by the most basic vaccine packages, the deadly childhood disease spreads quickly through the camps in Bangladesh, where most children have not been immunized. MSF treats 6,442 cases from August 2017 to June 2018.


Timeline: 50 Years of Spaceflight

On Oct. 4, 2007, the Space Age celebrated the 50th anniversary of the historic launch of Sputnik, the first artificial satellite, by the former Soviet Union.

The space shot also launched the Space Race to the moon between the United States and the Soviet Union. But despite that turbulent beginning, the initial launch has led to five decades of triumphs and tragedies in space science and exploration.

Below is a timeline by Space News and SPACE.com chronicling the first 50 years of spaceflight. You are invited to walk through the half century of space exploration and click related links for more in depth information:

Sometime in the 11th century: China combines sulfur, charcoal and saltpeter (potassium nitrate) to make gunpowder, the first fuel used to propel early rockets in Chinese warfare.

July 4, 1054: Chinese astronomers observe the supernova in Taurus that formed the Crab Nebula.

Mid-1700s: Hyder Ali, the Sultan of Mysome in India, begins manufacturing rockets sheathed in iron, not cardboard or paper, to improve their range and stability.

March 16, 1926: Robert Goddard, sometimes referred to as the "Father of Modern Rocketry," launches the first successful liquid-fueled rocket.

July 17, 1929: Robert Goddard launches a rocket that carries with it the first set of scientific tools &mdash a barometer and a camera &mdash in Auburn, Mass. The launch was Goddard's fourth.

Feb. 18, 1930: The dwarf planet Pluto is discovered by American astronomer Clyde Tombaugh at Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Ariz.

Oct. 3, 1942: Germany successfully test launches the first ballistic missile, the A4, more commonly known as the V-2, and later uses it near the end of European combat in World War II.

Sep. 29, 1945: Wernher von Braun arrives at Ft. Bliss, Texas, with six other German rocket specialists.

Oct. 14, 1947: American test pilot Chuck Yeager breaks the sound barrier for the first time in the X-1, also known as Glamorous Glennis.

Oct. 4, 1957: A modified R-7 two-stage ICBM launches the satellite Sputnik 1 from Tyuratam. The Space Race between the Soviet Union and the United States begins.

Nov. 3, 1957: The Soviet Union launches Sputnik 2 with the first living passenger, the dog Laika, aboard.

Dec. 6, 1957: A Vanguard TV-3 carrying a grapefruit-sized satellite explodes at launch a failed response to the Sputnik launch by the United States.

Jan. 31, 1958: Explorer 1, the first satellite with an onboard telemetry system, is launched by the United States into orbit aboard a Juno rocket and returns data from space.

Oct. 7, 1958: NASA Administrator T. Keith Glennan publicly announces NASA's manned spaceflight program along with the formation of the Space Task Group, a panel of scientist and engineers from space-policy organizations absorbed by NASA. The announcement came just six days after NASA was founded.

Jan. 2, 1959: The U.S.S.R. launches Luna 1, which misses the moon but becomes the first artificial object to leave Earth orbit.

Jan. 12, 1959: NASA awards McDonnell Corp. the contract to manufacture the Mercury capsules.

Feb. 28, 1959: NASA launches Discover 1, the U.S. first spy satellite, but it is not until the Aug. 11, 1960, launch of Discover 13 that film is recovered successfully.

May 28, 1959: The United States launches the first primates in space, Able and Baker, on a suborbital flight.

Aug. 7, 1959: NASA's Explorer 6 launches and provides the first photographs of the Earth from space.

Sept. 12, 1959: The Soviet Union's Luna 2 is launched and two days later is intentionally crashed into the Moon.

Sept. 17, 1959: NASA's X-15 hypersonic research plane, capable of speeds to Mach 6.7, makes its first powered flight.

Oct. 24, 1960: To rush the launch of a Mars probe before the Nov. 7 anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution, Field Marshall Mitrofan Nedelin ignored several safety protocols and 126 people are killed when the R-16 ICBM explodes at the Baikonur Cosmodrome during launch preparations.

Feb. 12, 1961: The Soviet Union launches Venera to Venus, but the probe stops responding after a week.

April 12, 1961: Yuri Gagarin becomes the first man in space with a 108-minute flight on Vostok 1 in which he completed one orbit.

May 5, 1961: Mercury Freedom 7 launches on a Redstone rocket for a 15-minute suborbital flight, making Alan Shepard the first American in space.

May 25, 1961: In a speech before Congress, President John Kennedy announces that an American will land on the moon and be returned safely to Earth before the end of the decade.

Oct. 27, 1961: Saturn 1, the rocket for the initial Apollo missions, is tested for the first time.

Feb. 20, 1962: John Glenn makes the first U.S. manned orbital flight aboard Mercury 6.

June 7, 1962: Wernher von Braun backs the idea of a Lunar Orbit Rendezvous mission.

July 10, 1962: The United States launches Telstar 1, which enables the trans-Atlantic transmission of television signals.

June 14, 1962: Agreements are signed establishing the European Space Research Organisation and the European Launcher Development Organisation. Both eventually were dissolved.

July 28, 1962: The U.S.S.R launches its first successful spy satellite, designated Cosmos 7.

Aug. 27, 1962: Mariner 2 launches and eventually performs the first successful interplanetary flyby when it passes by Venus.

Sept. 29, 1962: Canada's Alouette 1 launches aboard a NASA Thor-Agena B rocket, becoming the first satellite from a country other than the United States or Soviet Union.

June 16, 1963: Valentina Tereshkova becomes the first woman to fly into space.

July 28, 1964: Ranger 7 launches and is the Ranger series' first success, taking photographs of the moon until it crashes into its surface four days later.

April 8, 1964: Gemini 1, a two-seat spacecraft system, launches in an unmanned flight.

Aug. 19, 1964: NASA's Syncom 3 launches aboard a Thor-Delta rocket, becoming the first geostationary telecommunications satellite.

Oct. 12, 1964: The Soviet Union launches Voskhod 1, a modified Vostok orbiter with a three-person crew.

March 18, 1965: Soviet cosmonaut Alexei Leonov makes the first spacewalk from the Voskhod 2 orbiter.

March 23, 1965: Gemini 3, the first of the manned Gemini missions, launches with a two-person crew on a Titan 2 rocket, making astronaut Gus Grissom the first man to travel in space twice.

June 3, 1965: Ed White, during the Gemini 4 mission, becomes the first American to walk in space.

July 14, 1965: Mariner 4 executes the first successful Mars flyby.

Aug. 21, 1965: Gemini 5 launches on an eight-day mission.

Dec. 15, 1965: Gemini 6 launches and performs a rendezvous with Gemini 7.

Jan. 14, 1966: The Soviet Union's chief designer, Sergei Korolev, dies from complications stemming from routine surgery, leaving the Soviet space program without its most influential leader of the preceding 20 years.

Feb. 3, 1966: The unmanned Soviet spacecraft Luna 9 makes the first soft landing on the Moon.

March 1, 1966: The Soviet Union's Venera 3 probe becomes the first spacecraft to land on the planetVenus, but its communications system failed before data could be returned.

March 16, 1966: Gemini 8 launches on a Titan 2 rocket and later docks with a previously launched Agena rocket &mdash the first docking between two orbiting spacecraft.

April 3, 1966: The Soviet Luna 10 space probe enters lunar orbit, becoming the first spacecraft to orbit the Moon.

June 2, 1966: Surveyor 1, a lunar lander, performs the first successful U.S. soft landing on the Moon.

Jan. 27, 1967: All three astronauts for NASA's Apollo 1 mission suffocate from smoke inhalationin a cabin fire during a launch pad test.

April 5, 1967: A review board delivers a damning report to NASA Administrator James Webb about problem areas in the Apollo spacecraft. The recommended modifications are completed by Oct. 9, 1968.

April 23, 1967: Soyuz 1 launches but myriad problems surface. The solar panels do not unfold, there are stability problems and the parachute fails to open on descent causing the death of Soviet cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov.

Oct. 11, 1968: Apollo 7, the first manned Apollo mission, launches on a Saturn 1 for an 11-day mission in Earth orbit. The mission also featured the first live TV broadcast of humans in space.

Dec. 21, 1968: Apollo 8 launches on a Saturn V and becomes the first manned mission to orbit the moon.

Jan. 16, 1969: Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5 rendezvous and dock and perform the first in-orbit crew transfer.

March 3, 1969: Apollo 9 launches. During the mission, tests of the lunar module are conducted in Earth orbit.

May 22, 1969: Apollo 10's Lunar Module Snoopy comes within 8.6 miles (14 kilometers) of the moon's surface.

July 20, 1969: Six years after U.S. President John F. Kennedy's assassination, the Apollo 11 crew lands on the Moon, fulfilling his promise to put an American there by the end of the decade and return him safely to Earth.

Nov. 26, 1965: France launches its first satellite, Astérix, on a Diamant A rocket, becoming the third nation to do so.

Feb. 11, 1970: Japan's Lambda 4 rocket launches a Japanese test satellite, Ohsumi into orbit.

April 13, 1970: An explosion ruptures thecommand module of Apollo 13, days after launch and within reach of the moon. Abandoning the mission to save their lives, the astronauts climb into the Lunar Module and slingshot around the Moon to speed their return back to Earth.

April 24, 1970: The People's Republic of China launches its first satellite, Dong Fang Hong-1, on a Long March 1 rocket, becoming the fifth nation capable of launching its own satellites into space.

Sept. 12: 1970: The Soviet Union launches Luna 16, the first successful automated lunar sample retrieval mission.

April 19, 1971: A Proton rocket launches thefirst space station, Salyut 1, from Baikonur.

June 6, 1971: Soyuz 11 launches successfully, docking with Salyut 1. The three cosmonauts are killed during re-entry from a pressure leak in the cabin.

July 26, 1971: Apollo 15 launches with a Boeing-built Lunar Roving Vehicle and better life-support equipment to explore the Moon.

Oct. 28, 1971: The United Kingdom successfully launches its Prospero satellite into orbit on a Black Arrow rocket, becoming the sixth nation capable of launching its own satellites into space.

Nov. 13, 1971: Mariner 9 becomes the first spacecraft to orbit Mars and provides the first complete map of the planet's surface.

Jan. 5, 1972: U.S. President Richard Nixon announces that NASA is developing a reusable launch vehicle, the space shuttle.

March 3, 1972: Pioneer 10, the first spacecraft to leave the solar system, launches from Cape Kennedy, Fla.

Dec. 19, 1972: Apollo 17, the last mission to the moon, returns to Earth.

May 14, 1973: A Saturn V rocket launches Skylab, the United States' first space station.

March 29, 1974: Mariner 10 becomes the first spacecraft to fly by Mercury.

April 19, 1975: The Soviet Union launches India's first satellite, Aryabhata.

May 31, 1975: The European Space Agency is formed.

July 17 1975: Soyuz-19 and Apollo 18 dock.

Aug. 9, 1975: ESA launches its first satellite, Cos-B, aboard a Thor-Delta rocket.

Sept. 9, 1975: Viking 2, composed of a lander and an orbiter, launches for Mars.

July 20, 1976: The U.S. Viking 1 lands on Mars, becoming the first successful Mars lander.

Aug. 20, 1977: Voyager 2 is launched on a course toward Uranus and Neptune.

Sept. 5, 1977: Voyager 1 is launched to perform flybys of Jupiter and Saturn.

Sept. 29, 1977: Salyut 6 reaches orbit. It is the first space station equipped with docking stations on either end, which allow for two vehicles to dock at once, including the Progress supply ship.

Feb. 22, 1978: The first GPS satellite, Navstar 1, launches aboard an Atlas F rocket.

July 11, 1979: Skylab, the first American space station, crashes back to Earth in the sparsely populated grasslands of western Australia.

Sept. 1, 1979: Pioneer 11 becomes the first spacecraft to fly past Saturn.

Dec. 24, 1979: The French-built Ariane rocket, Europe's first launch vehicle, launches successfully.

July 18 1980: India launches its Rohini 1 satellite. By using its domestically developed SLV-3 rocket, India becomes the seventh nation capable of sending objects into space by itself.

April 12, 1981: Space Shuttle Columbia lifts off from Cape Canaveral, beginning the first space mission for NASA's new astronaut transportation system.

June 24, 1982: French air force test pilot Jean-Loup Chrétien launches to the Soviet Union's Salyut 7 aboard Soyuz T-6.

Nov. 11, 1982: Shuttle Columbia launches. During its mission, it deploys two commercial communications satellites.

June 18, 1983: Sally Ride aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger becomes the first American woman in space.

Feb. 7, 1984: Astronauts Bruce McCandless and Robert Stewart maneuver as many as 328 feet (100 meters) from the Space Shuttle Challenger using the Manned Maneuvering Unit, which contains small thrusters, in the first ever untethered spacewalks.

April 8, 1984: Challenger crew repairs the Solar Max satellite during a spacewalk.

Sept. 11: 1985: The International Cometary Explorer, launched by NASA&enspin 1978, performs the first comet flyby.

Jan. 24, 1986: Voyager 2 completes the first and only spacecraft flyby of Uranus.

Jan. 28, 1986: Challenger broke apart 73 seconds after launch after its external tank exploded, grounding the shuttle fleet for more than two years.

Feb. 20, 1986: The Soviet Union launches theMir space station.

March 13, 1986: A two-cosmonaut crew launches aboard Soyuz T-15 to power up the Mir space station. During their 18-month mission, they also revive the abandoned Salyut 7, and take parts that are later placed aboard Mir.

June 15, 1988: PanAmSat launches its first satellite, PanAmSat 1, on an Ariane 4 rocket, giving Intelsat its first taste of competition.

Sept. 19, 1988: Israel launches its first satellite, the Ofeq 1 reconnaissance probe, aboard an Israeli Shavit rocket.

Nov. 15, 1988: The Soviet Union launches its Buran space shuttle on its only flight, an unpiloted test.

May 4, 1989: The Space Shuttle Atlantis launches the Magellan space probe to use radar to map the surface of Venus.

Oct. 18, 1989: Shuttle Atlantis launches with Jupiter-bound Galileo space probe on board.

April 7, 1990: China launches the Asiasat-1 communications satellite, completing its first commercial contract.

April 25, 1990: The Space Shuttle Discovery releases the Hubble Space Telescopeinto Earth orbit.

Oct. 29, 1991: The U.S. Galileo spacecraft, on its way to Jupiter, successfully encounters the asteroid Gaspra, obtaining images and other data during its flyby.

April 23, 1992: The U.S. Cosmic Background Explorer spacecraft detects the first evidence of structure in the residual radiation left over from the Big Bang that created the Universe.

Dec. 28, 1992: Lockheed and Khrunichev Enterprise announce plans to form Lockheed-Khrunichev-Energia International, a new company to market Proton rockets.

June 21, 1993: Shuttle Endeavour launches carrying Spacehab, a privately owned laboratory that sits in the shuttle cargo bay.

Dec. 2, 1993: Endeavour launches on a mission to repair theHubble Space Telescope.

Dec. 17, 1993: DirecTV launches its first satellite, DirecTV 1, aboard an Ariane 4 rocket.

Feb. 7, 1994: The first Milstar secure communications satellite launches. The geosynchronous satellites are used by battlefield commanders and for strategic communications.

Oct. 15, 1994: India launches its four-stage PolarSatellite Launch Vehicle for the first time.

Jan. 26, 1995: A Chinese Long March rocket carrying the Hughes-built Apstar-1 rocket fails. The accident investigation, along with the probe of a subsequent Long March failure that destroyed an Intelsat satellite, leads to technology-transfer allegations that ultimately result in the U.S. government barring launches of American-built satellites on Chinese rockets.

Feb. 3, 1995: The Space Shuttle Discovery launches anddocks with the Mir space station.

March 15, 1995: Aerospace giants Lockheed Corp. and Martin Marietta Corp. merge.

July 13, 1995: Galileo releases its space probe, which is bound for Jupiter and its moons.

Aug. 7, 1996: NASA and Stanford University researchers announce a paper contending that a 4-billion-year-old Martian meteorite, called ALH 84001, found in Antarctica in 1984, contains fossilized traces of carbonate materials that suggest primitive life might once have existed on Mars. That contention remains controversial.

May 5, 1997: Satellite mobile phone company Iridium launches its first five satellites on a Delta 2 rocket.

June 25 1997: An unmanned Russian Progress supply spacecraft collides with the Mir space station.

July 4, 1997: The Mars Pathfinder lander and its accompanying Sojourner rover touch down on the surface of Mars.

Aug. 1, 1997: The Boeing Co. and the McDonnell Douglas Corp. merge, keeping Boeing's name.

Feb. 14, 1998: Globalstar, a satellite mobile telephone company, launches its first four satellites on a Delta 2 rocket.

Sept. 9, 1998: A Russian Zenit 2 rocket launches and subsequently crashes, destroying all 12 Loral-built Globalstar satellites aboard. The payload had an estimated value of about $180 million.

Nov. 20, 1998: Russia's Zarya control module, the first segment of the International Space Station, launches into space and unfurls its solar arrays.

March 27, 1999: Sea Launch Co. launches a demonstration satellite, successfully completing its first launch.

July 23, 1999: The Chandra X-ray observatory, NASA's flagship mission for X-ray astronomy, launches aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia.

Aug. 13, 1999: Iridium files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy, after being unable to pay its creditors. Iridium Satellite LLC later acquired the original Iridium's assets from bankruptcy.

Nov. 19, 1999: China successfully test launches the unmanned Shenzhou 1.

July 10, 2000: Europe's largest aerospace company, European Aeronautic Defence and Space Co., EADS, forms with the consolidation of DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG of Munich, Aerospatiale Matra S.A. of Paris, and Construcciones Aeronáuticas S.A. of Madrid.

March 18, 2001: After launch delays with XM-1, XM Satellite Radio's XM-2 satellite becomes the company's first satellite in orbit when it is launched by Sea Launch Co.

March 23, 2001: After being mothballed in 1999, Mir descends into the Earth's atmosphere and breaks up over the Pacific Ocean.

May 6, 2001: U.S. entrepreneur Dennis Tito returns to Earth aboard a Russian Soyuz spacecraft to become the world's first paying tourist to visit the International Space Station.

Aug. 29, 2001: Japan's workhorse launch system, the two-stage H-2A rocket, launches for the first time.

Feb. 15, 2002: After having trouble selling its satellite mobile phone service, Globalstar voluntarily files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection from escalating creditor debt. The company emerged from bankruptcy April 14, 2004.

Feb. 1, 2003: The Space Shuttle Columbia disintegrates as it re-enters the Earth's atmosphere, killing the crew. Damage from insulating foam hitting the orbiter's leading wing on liftoff is later cited as the cause of the accident.

Aug 22, 2003: The VLS-V03, a Brazilian prototype rocket, explodes on the launch pad at Alcántara killing 21 people.

Aug. 25, 2003: NASA launches the Spitzer Space Telescope aboard a Delta rocket.

Oct. 1, 2003: Japan's two space agencies, the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science and the National Space Development Agency of Japan, merge into the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency.

Oct. 15, 2003: Yang Liwei becomes China's first taikonaut, having launched aboard Shenzhou 5.

Jan. 4, 2004: The first Mars Exploration Rover, Spirit, lands on Mars. Its twin, Opportunity lands Jan. 25.

Jan. 14, 2004: President George W. Bush advocates space exploration missions to the moon and Mars for NASA in his Vision for Space Exploration speech.

Sept. 20, 2004: India launches its three-stage Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle for the first time.

Oct. 4, 2004: Scaled Composites' SpaceShipOne piloted craft wins the X Prize by flying over 100 kilometers above Earth twice within two weeks.

July 26, 2005: Discovery becomes the first shuttle to launch since the Columbia disaster more than two years before. While the crew returned safely, the loss of several pieces of foam debris prompted further investigation, which delayed future shuttle missions.

Oct. 12, 2005: A two-taikonaut crew launches aboard the Chinese Shenzhou 6.

Oct 19, 2005: The last of the Martin Marietta-built Titan 4 heavy-lift rockets launches.

Jan. 19, 2006: New Horizons, NASA's first-ever mission to the dwarf planet Pluto and its moons, launches atop an Atlas 5 rocket from Cape Canaveral, Florida. Flies past Jupiter one year later in what is billed as NASA's fastest mission to date.

July 3, 2006: Intelsat acquires fellow fixed satellite service provider PanAmSat for $6.4 billion.

July 4, 2006: NASA's second post-Columbia accident test flight, STS-121 aboard Discovery, begins a successful space station-bound mission, returning the U.S. orbiter fleet to flight status.

Sept. 9., 2006: NASA resumes construction of the International Space Station with the launch of the shuttle Atlantis on STS-115 after two successful return to flight test missions. Atlantis' launch occurs after nearly four years without a station construction flight.

Oct. 11, 2006: Lockheed Martin completes the sale of its majority share in International Launch Services to Space Transport Inc. for $60 million.

Jan. 11, 2007: China downs one of its weather satellites, Fengyun-1C, with a ground launched missile. In doing so, China joins Russia and the United States as the only nations to have successfully tested anti-satellite weapons.

April 6, 2007: The European Commission approves the acquisition of French-Italian Alcatel Alenia by Paris-based Thales, thus creating satellite manufacturer Thales Alenia Space.?

Aug. 8, 2007: NASA's Space Shuttle Endeavour launches toward the International Space Station on the STS-118 construction mission. The shuttle crew includes teacher-astronaut Barbara Morgan, NASA's first educator spaceflyer, who originally served backup for the first Teacher-in-Space Christa McAuliffe who was lost with six crewmates during the 1986 Challenger accident.

Sept. 27, 2007: Dawn, the first ion-powered probe to visit two celestial bodies in one go, launches on an eight-year mission to the asteroid Vesta and dwarf planet Ceres, the two largest space rocks in the solar system.

Oct. 1, 2007: NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson, the first female commander of the International Space Station, prepares for an Oct. 10 launch with her Expedition 16 crewmate Yuri Malenchenko and Malaysia's first astronaut Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor. Whitson, and NASA's second female shuttle commander Pamela Melroy, will command a joint space station construction mission in late October.

Oct. 4, 2007: The Space Age turns 50, five decades after the historic launch of Sputnik 1.


Timeline of many of Ted Bundy's brutal crimes

He violently stole at least 30 lives over five years.

Who was Ted Bundy, the notorious serial killer who murdered dozens of women: Part 1

It’s been 30 years since Ted Bundy was executed by electrocution. Over five years, he mercilessly and viciously killed innocent women across the U.S., striking terror in communities from the Northwest corridor to Florida.

One of the most prolific serial killers in American history, Bundy is returning to the national consciousness three decades after he was executed, and we reflect on the 30 lives, and possibly many more, he violently stole.

The following is a timeline of Bundy’s confirmed brutal crimes, his two escapes from police custody, and how he was brought to justice in Florida:

Bundy abducted Lynda Ann Healy, 21, from the University District of Seattle, where the main campus of the University of Washington is located. She was known in the community for giving the weekday ski report on the radio. He abducted and strangled her.

Bundy kidnapped and murdered Donna Gail Manson, 19, a student at Evergreen State College in Olympia. Her body was never recovered.

Bundy abducted and killed Susan Elaine Rancourt, 18, a student at Central Washington University in Ellensburg.

Bundy abducted Roberta “Kathy” Parks, 20, from Oregon State University around 11 p.m. He claimed to have raped and killed her at Taylor Mountain, more than 25 miles southeast of Seattle.

Bundy abducted Brenda Carol Ball, 22, in the town of Burien, south of Seattle. Her skull was later found at Taylor Mountain.

Bundy kidnapped and killed 18-year-old Georgeann Hawkins from the University District of Seattle. In an interview with King County Sheriff's Office Detective Robert Keppel, he claimed to have knocked her unconscious and strangled her.

On a beautiful summer day at the popular Lake Sammamish, Bundy abducted Janice Anne Ott, 23, and Denise Naslund, 19. Witnesses described a handsome young man who called himself "Ted." Police were beginning to identify Bundy’s strategy of luring women by wearing his arm in a sling and asking for help.

A grouse hunter discovered the remains of Ott, Naslund and Hawkins, one mile east of an old railroad trestle just outside Issaquah, Washington. According to Keppel the site was a “multi-use environment” for Bundy.

Bundy abducted, raped and strangled Melissa Smith, 17, from Midvale, Utah. Her body was discovered just over a week later.

Bundy kidnapped, raped and murdered Laura Ann Aime, 17, from Lehi, Utah. Her remains were found that Thanksgiving Day in a mountainous area.

Bundy attempted to abduct Carol DaRonch, 18, at the Fashion Place Mall in Murray, Utah. He posed as a police officer.

At 10:15 p.m. that same day, Debra Jean Kent’s father gave her the keys to the car to pick up her brothers from a roller skating rink. She never got to her parents’ car. She was 17. Bundy claimed in an interview with Salt Lake County Sheriff's Detective Dennis Couch that he left her body in a grave, but her body has never been found.

Bundy abducted Caryn Eileen Campbell, 23, from the Wildwood Inn in Snowmass, Colorado. Thirty-six days later, her body was discovered three miles from the inn with evidence of blows to her head.

While Bundy was in Salt Lake City, Utah, the remains of Healy, Rancourt, Parks and Ball were found on Taylor Mountain in Washington. Their skeletal remains showed they suffered severe blunt force trauma.

Bundy abducted and killed ski instructor Julie Cunningham, 26, from Vail, Colorado. Her body was never found.

Bundy killed Denise Lynn Oliverson, 24, from Grand Junction, Colorado. He said he left her body in the Colorado River and it has never been recovered.

Bundy kidnapped and drowned Lynette Dawn Culver, 12, in a bathtub, then later said he discarded her body in the Snake River. Her remains have never been found.

Bundy kidnapped and killed Susan Curtis, 15, when she was attending the Bountiful Orchard Youth Conference at Brigham Young University. Bundy claimed he buried her body near a highway, but her remains have never been located.

At 2:30 a.m., Bundy was arrested for the first time in Granger, Utah, after a chase by high way patrol officer Bob Hayward. Police found masks, gloves, rope, a crowbar and handcuffs in his car. He was released on bail the next day.

Bundy was identified in a line-up by Carol DaRonch, whom he tried to abduct in November 1974.


Watch the video: Timeline: 1978 - What Happened In the Year 1978? (July 2022).


Comments:

  1. Zulugrel

    what results?

  2. Bragore

    nonsense in one word

  3. Shacage

    And honestly well done !!!!

  4. Erikas

    a real problem for our time, I look forward to continuing your discussions on this issue. And it's just super =)



Write a message